PT on the Net Research

Positive Neuroplasticity Improves Brain and Body Health


Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to adapt and change.  The model of thinking in which the brain is only plastic (moldable) in the early years of life is outdated.  Research demonstrates that the brain continues to change throughout one’s lifespan in “negative or positive directions in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences” (Schaffer, 2012).  Many of these influences, discussed below, are within the scope of the training relationship.  Fitness professionals have the opportunity to incorporate practices in client programming and coaching that encourage positive changes in the brain and minimize negative ones.  Clients, then, will not only reach their health and fitness goals for their body but can also limit cognitive decline as they age.  Cognitive reserve, which is the ability of the brain to be resilient to possible declining function, is also enhanced.  Increasing cognitive performance and reserve will help to ensure clients’ ability to learn, remember, and have good mental acuity as they age.

Learning Objectives:

  1. Define neuroplasticity
  2. Understand the relevance of neuroplasticity to personal trainers
  3. Understand the factors that contribute to positive and negative neuroplasticity
  4. Identify specific changes that a client can adopt with their activity, diet, and lifestyle that will contribute to positive neuroplasticity

Background on Neuroplasticity and its Relevance to Personal Trainers

The field of neuroplasticity began in the 1970s, as scientists tossed out the idea that the brain is an organ that cannot form new cells and simply deteriorates over time.  Since then, researchers have studied the ability of the brain to create new neural pathways and synapses.  These changes in the brain occur from changes in behavior, the environment, learning, and even from physical injury.

Like all change, it can be for the better or for the worse.  Positive neuroplasticity is “the physiological ability of the brain to form and strengthen dendritic connections, produce beneficial morphological changes, and increase cognitive reserve” (Vance, Roberson, McGuinness, & Fazeli, 2010).  Physical activity is one of the factors associated with positive neuroplasticity and is the primary focus of the training relationship.

Conversely, negative neuroplasticity is the “ability of the brain to atrophy and weaken dendritic connections, produce detrimental morphological changes, and decrease cognitive reserve” (Vance et al., 2010).  Many factors associated with negative neuroplasticity are within the scope of the client-trainer relationship and include: poor sleep hygiene (sleep habits and nutrition and lifestyle habits that interfere with sleep), poor nutrition, and poor health.  Substance abuse, depression, and anxiety also negatively affect neuroplasticity.  However, these factors are only peripherally addressed in the training relationship.  Trainers, specifically those who are well-versed in coaching and behavior modification, can help clients incorporate stress management techniques and other lifestyle changes.  Clinical cases of substance abuse, depression, and anxiety, though, should be addressed in conjunction with a therapist or other heath professional.

The Findings on Positive Neuroplasticity

Physical Activity

Research on the effects of aerobic exercise and the brain are showing positive results throughout all stages of life (Swain, 2012).  Sixth graders who participated in vigorous physical activity (greater than or equal to 6.0 METs) had significantly higher grades than those only participating in moderate physical activity (3.0-5.99 METs) (Coe, Pivarnik, Womack, Reeves, & Malina, 2006).  In adolescent girls, physical activity and participation in sports is correlated with high self-esteem and less depressive symptoms (Dishman et al, 2006).  In older adults, aerobic activity not only decreased the loss of brain tissue (Colcombe, 2003) but can help increase both the volume of the gray and white matter areas (Colcombe, 2006).  Regardless of the age of the clientele, trainers can rest assured that having clients perform aerobic activity will benefit both the body and the brain. 

The Findings on Negative Neuroplasticity

Poor Sleep Hygiene

Brain functioning and memory, in particular, are dependent on getting adequate sleep.  Much of the current research in sleep supports the two-stage memory model.  This model assumes that new memories are temporarily stored in the hippocampus.  Gradually, these memories are moved to long-term storage in the neocortex or are forgotten.  The transference of memories from short- to long-term memory requires sleep, especially slow-wave sleep (SWS) (Born & Wilhelm, 2012).

Sleep research has demonstrated that participants who slept after memorizing a list of items had greater recall and forgot fewer items than participants who were tested before going to sleep.  (Fenn & Hambrick, 2013).  Sleep helps with storage and recall of new information.  Adequate sleep is also associated with both short-term (Ratcliff & Dongen, 2009) and long-term (Tworoger, Lee, Schernhammer, & Grodstein, 2006) cognitive functioning.

Adequate sleep is dependent on many nutrition and lifestyle factors.  Consuming too much caffeine or consuming it later in the day may make falling asleep more difficult.  Other factors that disrupt sleep include:

Improving sleep hygiene requires that enough time be set aside for sleeping in addition to ensuring that nutrition and lifestyle choices are not precluding the ability to fall or stay asleep.

Poor Nutrition

It may be obvious that a lack of nutrients in the diet will affect the brain, as well as the rest of the body, whose cells rely upon essential nutrients from the diet.  However, the impact of nutrition on the brain extends far beyond the nutrients in foods.  Gut health affects the health of the brain.

The gut is often called the “second brain” (Carpenter, 2012).  The lining of the gut contains approximately 100 million nerve cells which are connected through the vagas nerve to the brain.  It is not surprising, then, that poor nutrition impacts gut health and functioning which then affects brain functioning. 

The gut is teeming with bacteria and other single-cell organisms that far outnumber the cells in the human body.  These bacteria produce various chemicals and neurotransmitters that affect the brain.  One of these neurotransmitters is serotonin.  In fact, the gut is where about 95% of the serotonin in the body is found (Kim & Camilleri, 2000).  When the gut is filled with bad bacteria, mold, yeast, and parasites, known as dysbiosis, higher levels of depression and anxiety (Carpenter, 2012), and therefore negative neuroplasticity, are seen. 

A number of nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle factors are associated with dysbiosis. 

Foods associated with dysbiosis include:

Environmental and lifestyle factors that influence the health of the gut and contribute to dysbiosis include:

In addition to dysbiosis contributing to disease of the intestinal tract, it also affects the functioning of the immune system and susceptibility of developing diabetes or becoming obese (Brown et al. 2012).  As is discussed in the next section, poor health contributes to negative neuroplasticity.  Good nutrition and lifestyle habits help strengthen overall health and well-being of the mind and body.  This equates to helping clients reach their goals while strengthening positive neuroplasticity.

Poor Heath

Poor health caused by disease is linked to a decline in cognitive functioning.  Both the disease itself and some of the medications used to treat the disease contribute to the cognitive decline.  These physical diseases include:

It’s not just chronic disease that affects the brain and memory.  When you are sick with the flu or other acute illness, the functioning of the hippocampus, which helps encode memories temporarily, is disrupted (Maier & Watkins, 2012).  Additionally, poor health choices like smoking (Bruijnzeel et al., 2011) and consuming alcohol negatively affect cognitive performance. 

Putting Research into Practice

Client workout, nutrition, and lifestyle protocols ideally should incorporate behaviors that help improve cognitive performance and reserve.

Help clients reduce factors associated with negative neuroplasticity:

Help clients practice behaviors associated with positive neuroplasticity:

Prioritizing Change

To get started, first determine which of the recommendations will be most beneficial to improving brain health based on the client’s current lifestyle, goals, and health challenges.  Then, dialogue with the client to narrow down the one or two changes he/she is willing and most excited about making.  Client buy-in is important.  It can increase compliance and long-term adherence.  Finally, some recommendations may be outside the scope of the training relationship (i.e. minimizing the use of antibiotics).  In these instances, refer the client to the appropriate health professional who can help determine a suitable course of action.

Working with clients on their nutrition and lifestyle choices is invaluable.  The findings in neuroplasticity research are exciting in that they confirm that the benefits of the client-trainer relationship extend far beyond just looking better or improving fitness levels.  Not only will it help them reach the goals that brought them to training in the first place but will also promote neuroplasticity and cognitive reserve.  Ultimately, this lends itself to clients experiencing a higher quality of life.

References:

Born, J. & Wilhelm, I. (2012). System consolidation of memory during sleep. Psychological Research, 76, 192-203.

Brown, K., DeCoffe, D., Molcan, E., & Gibson, D.L. (2012). Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Nutrients, 4(8), 1095-1119.

Bruijnzeel, A.W., Bauzo, R.M., Munikoti, V., Rodrick, G.B., Yamada, H., Fornal, C.A., Ormerod, B.K., Jacobs, B.L. (September 21, 2011). Tobacco smoke diminishes neurogenesis and promotes gliogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Brain Research, 1413, 32-42.

Carpenter, S. (2012). That gut feeling. American Physiological Association, 43(8), 50.

Coe, D.P., Pivarnik, J.M., Womack, C.J., Reeves, M.J. & Malina, R.M. (2006). Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children. American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.wafapower.com/scienceresearch/PE_academic_achievement.pdf

Colcombe, S.J, Erickson, K.I., Raz, N., Webb, A.G., Cohen, N.J., McAuley, E., & Kramer, A.F. (2003). Aerobic fitness reduces brain tissue loss in aging humans. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 58(2), M176-M180.

Colcombe, S.J., Erickson, K.I., Scalf, P.E., Kim, J.S., Prakash, R., McAuley, E., Elavsky, S., Marquez, D.X., Hu, L., & Kramer, A.F. (2006). Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Brain Volume in Aging Humans. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 61(11), 1166-1170.

Dishman,  R.K., Hales, D.P., Pfeiffer, K.A.,; Felton, G.A., Saunders, R., Ward, D.S., Dowda, M., & Pate, R.R. (2006). Physical self-concept and self-esteem mediate cross-sectional relations of physical activity and sport participation with depression symptoms among adolescent girls. Health Psychology, 25, 396-407.

Fenn, K. M., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2013). What drives sleep-dependent memory consolidation: Greater gain or less loss?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(3), 501-6.

Hawrelak, J.A. & Myers, S.P. (2004). The Causes of Intestinal Dysbiosis: A Review. Alternative Medicine Review, 9(4), 180-197.

Kim, D.Y. & Camilleri, M. (2000). Serotonin: a mediator of the brain-gut connection. American Journal of Gastronenterology, 95, 2698-2709.

Maier, S.F. & Watkins, L.R. (August 2012). Consequences of the Inflamed Brain. Dana Alliance.

Ratcliff, R., & Van Dongen, H.,P.A. (2009). Sleep deprivation affects multiple distinct cognitive processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review (Pre-2011), 16(4), 742-51.

Shaffer, J. (2012). Neuroplasticity and Positive Psychology in Clinical Practice: A Review for Combined Benefits.  Psychology, 3(12A), 1110-1115.

Sekirov, I.; Russell, S.; Caetano, L.; Antunes, M.; Finlay, B.B. Gut Microbiota in Health and Disease. American Physiological Society. 2010, 90, 859–904.

Stranahan, A.M., Arumugam, T.V., Cutler, R.C., Lee, K., Egan, J.M., & Mattson, M.P. (2008). Diabetes impairs hippocampal function through glucocorticoid-mediated effects on new and mature neurons. Nature Neuroscience, 11, 309-317.

Swain, R.A., Berggren, K.L., Kerr, A.L., Patel, A., Peplinski, C. & Sikorski, A. (2012). On Aerobic Exercise and Behavioral and Neural Plasticity. Brain Science, 2, 709-744.

Tworoger, S.S., Lee, S., Schernhammer, E.S., & Grodstein, F. (2006). The association of self-reported sleep duration, difficulty sleeping, and snoring with cognitive functioning in older women. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 20, 41-48.

Vance, D.E., Roberson, A.J., McGuinness, T.M., & Fazeli, P.L. (2010). How Neuroplasticity and Cognitive Reserve Protect Cognitive Functioning. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 48(4), 23-30.

Yan, A. W., E. Fouts, D., Brandl, J., Stärkel, P., Torralba, M., Schott, E., Tsukamoto, H., E. Nelson, K., A. Brenner, D. and Schnabl, B. (2011), Enteric dysbiosis associated with a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology, 53, 96–105.