TaeKwonDo is a Korean Martial Art and sport, defined as the "way of the fist” and "foot fighting." It was once a secret Korean form of weaponless self-defense. Daily practice of the art developed the feet and body into hidden weapons for self-defense. Established over 2000 years ago, when practiced as a martial art, TaeKwonDo teaches the practitioner to conquer himself; when used as a sport, it teaches him to conquer his opponent. Two people can use TaeKwonDo to practice methods of unarmed fighting or, one person can exercise alone for physical fitness, self-defense, and mind-body connection. The name TaeKwonDo is an amalgam of three shorter words: "Tae" means kicking, "Kwon" means punching and boxing, and "Do" means discipline.
TaeKwonDo has developed on an international, competitive level and is now an official Olympic sport. It has been called the ultimate self-defense because it trains the reflexes keenly and accurately. Technically, it is a unique style of Oriental martial arts combining Korean feet fighting techniques with Chinese hand techniques. A student can effectively defend himself from attack by multiple assailants, yet is able to spar vigorously with fellow students without heavy protective garments and in complete safety.
The Korean civilization is more than 4,310 years old and has its own traditional language, culture, and martial arts. The ancient martial arts had their beginning hundreds of years before the birth of Christ and included the use of military weapons. However, the advantages of unarmed combat techniques were not overlooked, and the skills and many forms of unarmed combat were also emphasized and developed. Consequently, TaeKwonDo developed as a branch of the martial arts limited to combat with the natural weapons of the fists, hands, and feet.
The modern day philosophy of TaeKwonDo promotes the formation of good moral character, non-violent attitudes, and behavior that leads to the enlightenment of some sort of mystic consciousness or divine union.
When practiced as a fine art, it becomes the link between mind and creative action. It is an expression of individualism through structured technique and a release of energy where one can take this energy and channel it into a constructive beneficial course of action.
TaeKwonDo is an excellent system of motion because it provides hundreds of techniques and an enormous range of motion and abdominal stability. In its "martial" art aspect its movements provide an application for self defense. In its "art" aspect it provides an aesthetic experience and appreciation for the philosophical viewpoint. It has the advantage of being a system of exercise rooted in the Eastern tradition of holistic health and well-being.>
The growth martial arts based aerobics, boxing, and kickboxing programs is largely attributed to a trend in simplicity of callisthenic design. It has also gained a reputation as an intense workout and an excellent calorie burner. The average sedentary individual desires "results" in the shortest amount of time and sometimes this is very much to their detriment. Additionally, they want to be successful at the movements and Martial Arts may offer this success because of the repetition of movements or apparent simplicity of the movements. Another obvious reason is the popularity of Billy Bank's TaeBo® programs and videos.
As a calorie burner, land martial arts has become an incredible tool for healthy weight management. Experts believe that it may burn up to 6.5 kcal / minute, 75% HR, RPE 12 (for upper body predominant movement) and 8.30 k/cal/minute, 85% HR, 14.5 RPE (for combination of upper/lower body movements) and 7.51 k/cal/minute, 81% HR, 14 RPE (for predominantly lower body movements) as well as 7.25 k/cal/minute, 80% HR, 13 RPE (for conditioning like jump rope, shuffle or shuffle & jab). The study was a land fitness research conducted by Len Kravitz PH.D, Larry Greene and Jutupron Wongsatihikun ( source ACE Fitness Matters July/Aug 1999). We could speculate that water training would expend even more calories due to the multidimensional resistance and the total body conditioning regime.
Bringing TaeKwonDo to the water
We have designed a comprehensive program that brings TaeKwonDo and aquatic fitness movements together with spirited music. The workout includes a complete warm up, coordination drills, jumping, muscle toning and endurance conditioning, stretching, partner exercises, and a thorough relaxation and mind/body component.
TaeKwonDo aquatic programs packs a high intensity workout into a 45-60 minute program combining invigorating music with ancient oriental martial art techniques. A client may be taken through a routine of punching, kicking, and blocks, with personal attention paid to safety, posture, and technique.
The nature of Tae Kwon Do classifies it as a lifetime sport. The program is intended for all fitness levels, therefore no previous experience is necessary to begin a program. However, like any program, it is recommend that participant work within their own limits and respect their body's safety
The philosophical foundation of TaeKwonAqua as a system of exercise is found in the Eastern Tradition, that well being is viewed holistically. Exercise is not just physical exercise with physical benefits, but also a practical exercise providing the basis for personal confidence and personal safety. It is a mental exercise in that every motion is meaningful and worthy of consideration. It is a social exercise whether practiced privately or for the benefit of the entire society. It is a beautiful exercise having intrinsic aesthetic value and benefits of its own.
- Cardiovascular fitness (aerobic & anaerobic)
- Muscular strength & endurance
- Flexibility and range of motion training
- Relaxation and stress management
- Posture and stance
- Stress management
- >Mind & body Connection
- Increased self esteem
- Increased confidence
- Self control techniques
- Self respect
- Social integration
- TaeKwonDo punches
- Boxing punches
- Hand techniques
- Stretching and relaxation
- Utilizing the properties of water for protection and performance
Ki is power, energy and life force. A human being is essentially made up of both a visible body and invisible mind. Ki connects the two parts. Ki, like a thought in the mind, is not visible. And like the mind, Ki has no size, no smell, no colour, and no weight. However, both of them obviously exist as a motivation force for the body, and they are both transmitted as sound, light, and wave.
3 Kinds of Ki
- Won Ki- an energy inherited from parents when one is born and this Ki is limited
- Jong Ki- originates from food and respiration, and people generally live their lives dependent upon this Ki
- Jin Ki- developed through the pure concentration of mind
As one moves up the levels of exercise, the quality of the energy evolves higher and higher. The level of a person's consciousness becomes transformed as the degree of the evolution of Ki goes higher. While this evolution is developing, the practitioner becomes increasingly aware and experiences true power, courage, love, and wisdom.
Differences Between Land and Water
|Land VS. Water
||Must add ext.
||Challenged mostly with contact or with partner work
||Dynamic properties of water challenge core muscles throughout program – by yourself or with a partner
||May perform in own home or at the gym
||Need to find pool big enough to move – either shallow and/or deep water depths
|How the body composition (body fat to fat free mass) effects movement
||No effect on land; however, having more muscle will affect movement quality
||People with more body fat float while people with more lean muscle mass sink
||Typically overwork the anterior deltoids and pectorals with punching, Quadriceps & iliopsoas with kicking
||Muscles are naturally balanced in the water. Triceps are targeted with punches, blocks, while gluteals & hamstrings are targeted with kicks
Exploring the Properties of Water for Exercise Design
Water Depth Shallow water is defined as naval to nipple depth, with feet as the center of balance – typically a pool 3 feet 5 inches to about 4 ½ feet (dependant on physical height) may be easily found at hotels, condominiums, community centers, and/or clubs with pools. Typically back yard pools tend to be too shallow for proper depth and protection of the water. The water needs to minimally cover the iliac crest to protect and balance the body.
Deep water can be defined as over neck depth. The feet do not touch the bottom during exercise and individuals need to wear a buoyancy belt to keep the head above the water (so they may perform the duration of the workout without just sculling or treading in small isometric movements.). The center of balance is the chest so the core musculature must work exponentially harder to balance and support good posture. Buoyancy Principle of Buoyancy states that when a body at rest is partially or wholly immersed in any fluid it experiences an upward thrust equal to the weight of fluid displaced
Buoyancy helps decrease impact on joints. Buoyancy cancels approximately 90% of the weight of a person submerged to the neck, 50% submerged to the waist and 100% in deep water. Buoyancy affects body composition, a participant with lots of body fat will float more in comparison to a participant with more muscle mass. Buoyancy assists movement upward and resists movements downward. Therefore, kicks in the water are made easier due to the upwards pull of buoyancy. However, kicks may be easily challenged by pushing downwards against the resistance of the water.
Resistance to movement is 12 times greater in water than in air because of the viscosity of the water, form drag, wave drag, and turbulence. Resistance increases exponentially with an increase in surface area, speed, range of motion, force, lever length and traveling movements. Resistance increases by working against buoyancy.
Water resistance helps to prevent osteoporosis. Performing exercises allows the muscles to contract on the bones, which provides enough overload/force to maintain bone density.
Short levers equal easier intensity compared to long levers (at same speed).
As the size of a movement increases, more surface area is pushing through water; therefore, the amount of resistance increases. Lengthening and Shortening levers (arms and legs) will change the center of buoyancy and the shape of the body moving through the water. As lever length increases the center of buoyancy moves away from the body. A weaker effect is felt using a short lever as the center of buoyancy moves closer to the joint.
The principle of inertia states a force must be applied to move a body from rest, to stop a moving body or to change the direction of a moving body. Inertia can be used in water to create or assist rest/work by changing exercise design.
The pressure of water on the body acts like a massage thereby helping the return of blood to the heart efficiently. Hydrostatic pressure that is exerted on the chest causes a participant’s vital capacity to be decreased by approximately 10% therefore the respiratory system works harder.
Water also acts as a bandage to protect and add traction to the joints, while decreasing swelling.
- Pool Temperature should range from (81 – 95 Fahrenheit )
- Ideal Pool Temperature for Healthy Participants: 83 – 86 Fahrenheit
- Therapeutic pools are typically (86 Fahrenheit and up) Avoid intense or cardiovascular exercise in pool temperatures above 90 Fahrenheit.
- The air temperature should be no more than 5 Fahrenheit higher than the water
Water Temperature below 83 Fahrenheit causes muscles to contract and increases muscle soreness and pain especially in elderly or injured participants
Normal body temperature is approximately 98.6 Fahrenheit (37 C).
Maintaining core body temperature is achieved through movement and wearing clothing. Body temperatures may vary throughout the day as well during menstrual cycles, pregnancy and menopause. The air, water temperature, a person’s body composition, skill level and clothing all affect how warm a person feels in the water.
TaeKwonDo involves kicking, punching, blocks, and high intensity movements . It is of utmost importance to educate beginners or people with limitations to a program. Insuring everyone's safety is your responsibility. Always "suggest" exercise. Do not force or prescribe exercise. Monitor and regulate intensity throughout the program and always provide permission to go at own pace. Additionally, provide modifications for exercise. Beginners do not know exercise design. An instructor must suggest it to them.
- Suggest Exercise Design - never "force" anyone to do exercise.
- Establish health history and baseline fitness assessment level Know how to modify all exercises. Always show the beginner level first then progress sensibly.
- Monitor throughout the program with RPE, a heart rate monitor or the talk test and encourage SELF PACED exercise.
- Avoid high intensity and high impact moves (rebounding) Add moderate impact and low impact options with high intensity(suspended or deep water work)
- Provide interval style programs with intermittent active recovery sets. This should dissipate blood lactate levels and provide less muscle soreness as well as more total work at a high intensity.
- Provide filler movements such as (peddle jog, march, walk) to actively recover from a high intensity set.
- Always start with low impact and slow speeds, then progress to add speed, and carefully integrate impact.
- Avoid locking or jamming the joints, especially the knees and elbows.
- Avoid hyper extending the wrist with palm hands.
- Remind participants of posture and technique throughout a program
- Always warm up significantly for 5 -10 minutes. Check by asking if the client is ready and warm to start a program.
- Always cool down diligently - ask if the client feels rejuvenated and stretched out.
- Strengthen the weak muscles and stretch the tight muscles (may need to add exercises that are not punching and kicking moves).
- Recommend that a beginner do a lesser intensity, lesser duration and 2-3 times/week
- Insure that the participants wear appropriate clothing and footwear.
- Remind the client to hydrate with water throughout their program. Drinking water will improve their mental and physical performance as well as increase caloric expenditure and energy. If someone is thirsty, they are already dehydrated.
- Choose music tempos that compliment the program ( if it enhances your clients performance).
- Encourage cross training activities for muscle balancing.
- The Personal Trainer should try traditional Martial Arts Classes to understand and improve technique.
Key Stances and Movements
The following is a breakdown of a few of the basic stances and TaeKwonDo movements that can be readily applied to aqua training. Descriptions are provided which will allow trainers and clients of all levels to begin practicing aquatic TaeKwonDo immediately, but for a much more comprehensive look at movement techniques, we have recently produced a book, TaeKwonAQUA Fitness Program (visit Julie’s Author Page for ordering info), and we highly recommended that interested trainers attend TaeKwonDo classes in person.
From the attention position, clasp the hands together at waist height. Hold the left hand open over the right fist at waist level. Bow from the waist at 45 degrees of flexion. The left hand signifies wisdom and the right fist signifies power which represents controlling power. Bending at the waist signifies respect. Bringing the hands in front of the heart signifies sincerity.
It is important to first learn the basic stances with proper body alignment to balance the body to defend or utilize utmost strength. Maintain a posture with ears over the shoulders, hips, and ankles. The body should be in a natural position at all times and never tensed. Avoid locking out the joints especially the knees and elbows. The core muscles will require a constant tightening–as abdominal and back muscles are utilized throughout the entire program just to maintain a vertical and upright posture.
The ready stance starts with the feet together in an attention position. Then step them apart so that there is equal weight transfer for an optimal base of support and stabilization. The abdominals are engaged to stand tall and strong.
The Riding stance steps out to a squat position.
Squatting on land utilizes the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. Be sure to flex at the hips and let the buttocks stick out. Keep the weight on the heels so that the knees do not go in front of the toes, or this will place undue stress on the knees.
The forward stance has the weight on the forward foot in a forward lunge position.
From a ready stance, either foot may step forward in a lunge or athletic stance type of position.
The fighting stance is with one foot slightly in front of the other with the weight on the balls of the feet ready for action. This is like walking with short strides with the both toes facing forward .
Learning a variety of fighting stances will help to maneuver efficiently with good balance. Experiment with the stances by traveling forwards, transfer the weight from one foot to another turn front and back and criss-cross to the side. When hands are held out of the water (for example a high block) balance will be greatly challenged.
To make a fist grab air with natural energy with the thumbs over the first 2 fingers. Keep the fist in natural tension – do not over contract or tense the muscles. Chamber the energy.
The LOW BLOCK starts with one arm chambering or held in the fist position lined up with the solar plexis. The fist and arm is extended downward across the body. Because of the military origins, you always start with the left side. Think chin to knee. The low blocks protect the whole body. You will finish the block with the palm hand down.
The OUT TO IN block starts with the elbow up and stops with the fist hand in front of the face. You supinate the forearm or use the brachial radialis muscle to rotate the fist out towards the opponent This block protects the face to the solar plexus. Engage the pectoral muscles when the arm is horizontally adducting from the shoulder or coming across in front of the body.
To start the in to out block take the fist across the body and externally rotate the shoulder so that the fist stops with the palm turned to the face. This block is used to knock an attackers arms away from your face.
Avoid bringing arms in and out of the water with shoulder abduction since it places great stress on the shoulder girdle. To vary a pattern in and out of the water – always slow the pattern down and streamline to take the arm out of the water. Most upper body patterns are performed under the water to naturally protect, support and add resistance to the movements.
With all of the TaeKwonDo movements focus on technique - not only to minimize injury risk but to maximize the exercise goals.
In ready stance, with a long punch try to extend the fist from shoulder height without turning the upper body. By keeping the body square, the core stabilizers are engaged.
Power Long Punch
Move to a forward stance and add the power long punch. With any of the “power “ punches or upper body movements, the upper body turns to provide more force, range of motion and ultimately more power. If you are in a forward stance the side with the leg back is the “Power” side (i.e. if your right leg is back then your power punch will come from your right fist). It is extremely important to pivot and unload the back knee as you turn or square off the hips. The target is the nose and face of the opponent.
The short jab is utilized when the opponent is in close proximity because it is a quick action and speed is utilized to the persons advantage . In a forward stance position, the short jab would come from the forward fist (i.e. left leg forward, left fist jab). The key is to never fully extend the elbow.
Power Short Jab
The power short jab uses the other arm to provide variations with jab movements. Create lots of interesting rhythms - so that you program is upbeat and interesting. Alternate jabs or do two on one side then two on the other. Play with syncopation of the music.
Start in a ready boxing position and the upper cut digs down to strike the opponent under the chin. Through this action, the forearm will supinate for added force. Again, the body should rotate with the movement, from the waist.
Power Upper Cut
The second upper cut is the power upper cut. The elbow will drop and tuck in – with a full motion upper body follow through. This is the most powerful of the two strikes.
Try a variety of punch combinations, then accelerate. Participants with low back problems or poor range of motion n spinal rotation – do not push them beyond normal range of motion (typically around 55 degrees spinal rotation). All athletes require superior oblique or waist abdominals to protect against back problems. Always focus on maitaining good body posture and alignment.
The position of the knife hand is with the fingers tight and the thumb bent so that the end of the thumb touches the side of the knuckles. Make sure that the strike is with the back of the hand and avoid the strike with the wrist so that you do not break the fingers.
Knife hand combo
There are a variety of knife hand positions. You may block or and/or strike your opponent.
The hand position is like a knife hand with the wrist bent backward. If you have any wrist problems or carpal tunnel – do not over extend the wrists, rather maintain a neutral wrist or pretend your wrists are in a cast.
The fisted hand comes across your body and you will need to step out to strike directly to the side. Avoid turning your body - or bringing the elbow back. You may vary the elbow strike by going out-to-in and striking in front.
Try to make the maximum speed or combat speed with all of the upper body movements. Enjoy the challenge, fun and have a great workout. Remember to breathe throughout the movements and check the intensity through Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) – or how you feel. On a scale of 0-10 . everyone should choose their personal best and combat speed.
Front kick cocking
Cocking is the chambering of energy. The front cocking motion starts in the forward stance. The front leg remains stationary while the back leg swings through. This prepares the hips and low back for the kicking action. Maintain a bent knee with the supporting leg to take the stress off the back. Use a bent knee prior to increasing the range to a straight leg or go short lever warm up prior to longer levers.
Side kick cocking
The side cocking kick again prepares the hips for the work to come. Since all of the lower body actions utilize hip flexion and extension it is a key area to prepare. Caution low back problematic participants to keep the movements low and slow and they may always keep all kicks in the coking position.
Back kick cocking motion
The back cocking kick is an excellent stretch for the Iliopsoas or hip flexor muscles. Typically these muscles are short and tight, so it is important to stretch these muscles out frequently in a program. It may seem awkward at first , but try to lean forwards slightly to balance the movement. Additionally use the arm to scull if you require more balance. Sculling is a figure eight movement that lightly presses the palms down so that the body may lift up
3 Steps & Cocking
Coordinate a walk, walk, walk and cocking movement to add speed and more range of motion to the cocking action. Notice that the same side will be lifted up in the front as well as the back – so remember to switch sides and perform the movement starting with the other leg. Cue clients to inhale through the mouth as the leg cocks to chamber. Exhale with the effort and knee lift.
Warm Up Stretch Kicks
Front Stretching Kicks
Start in a ready position and gradually prepare the hamstrings or back of the upper thighs for the range of motion necessary for the kicking action. Start low and slow and gradually increase the range. Bend the knee of the supporting leg and use the abdominals so that you do not sweep yourself off your feet.
Side Stretching Kicks
Now change the stretching motion to the side. Try to relax the muscles rather than tense them. Keep the toe pointed so that you do not overstretch the hamstrings. You will have to work to stop the momentum so that you do not go beyond a comfortable range of motion.
To start the action, the foot steps to a 90 degrees angel of the other foot with the heel to the arch. Use your breath and inhale. Then turn the hip by twisting at the waist but keep the shoulder in line with the kick – holding the breath. The foot angle is 45 degrees to the floor with the heel higher than the toes. The head is turned to look over the shoulder. Exhale as you complete the stretch. Follow the same movement for back kicks.
3 Steps & Kick
Combine 3 steps and a kick to provide more energy with the kicks. Walk forward for three and swing and kick, then walk backwards for three and control the stretch kick.
In water, try to gradually increase the range of motion and use buoyancy to support the leg lift. Use the arms to pump and balance the leg movements.
Front Snap Kick
Repetitive kicks without touching the floor with the kicking foot in between kicks.
Balance your kicks by leaning forwards from the waist. Hold the abdominals tight to protect the back from hyper-extending or arching.
Side Snap Kick
Start in a side stretch kick position. Left foot steps across in front of the and slightly foreword of the right and steps down parallel to the right. . Holding the breath, raise the right knee as high as possible to the front and center of the body. The instep is extended sideways rather than foreword so that the edge of the foot is towards the floor. The toes are pulled back and the support left pivots outward on the ball of the foot. The right hip rotates forward and down from the waist. The right arm is extended with the fist as far right as possible. The right heel, hops and both shoulders are in line with the target. Contact is made with the knife-edge of the foot. Remember that the eyes do on leave the target. Exhale when the kick is completed and re-chamber the knee.
3 Steps & Kick
Walking 3 steps then snap kick. Walking 3 steps back then snap kick. Vary the movement and progress the pattern by taking only one Step forward & snap kick, then back kick, walk backwards then front snap kick, etc…
Start in a ready stance. The supporting leg (or left foot) pivots 90 degrees outwards on the ball of the foot. The upper body does not turn. The working leg (or the right knee) chambers high. The instep is extended straight downward through the toes. The knee continues to point at the target as the lower leg raises to the outside, parallel to the floor. The supporting leg continues its pivot to 180 degrees to the direction of the kick. The upper body turns to the left as the right foot kicks snapping from the knee, contacting with the instep. When the kick is extended both feet should be in a straight line. Although the motion of the knee is stopped for an instant at impact, the motion of the foot is continuous. After the knee extends, the kick should re-chamber.
Front, Side & Back Kick
Moving forward, step turn, step turn, step turn then kick. Remember that tailbone should line up with the kick. Add marching in between the front, side back kicks to benefit with the CV workout of the program. Using the lower body musculature is the best way to optimize the CV system since these large lower body muscles may utilize the most oxygen throughout exercise. Remember to check the RPE scale and perform a pace that is appropriate to your needs.
Aquatic Partner Exercises
Tuck one leg up and hold it with your opposite hand to maintain this position. Look at you partner and hop on one foot. Change legs and try to out hop your opponent.
Back to back with your partner, twist from the waist in the opposite direction meeting behind to slap hands. Hands should be at shoulder level. This movement relieves tension in and strengthens the oblique muscles of the abdominals.
In a lunge position facing your partner – hold their hand and engage in a light arm wrestle. Maintain eye contact throughout the movement.
Lunge & Arm pump
In a lunge position - hold onto your partners right hand with yours. Make a sawing action or push and pull forwards and backwards.
Lunge with Palms Pushing
Facing your Partner in a lunge position. Lightly place your palms against your partners. Keep facing forward and press forward and back against your partner’s resistance.
|TaeKwonDo Aquatic Exercise Design
|COMPONENT of CLASS
||Exercise Goal and Safety Concerns
|ORIENTATION & Thermal Warm up
(5 – 10 Minutes)
|Cardiovascular WARM UP
|INTRODUCTION OF MOVEMENTS
||Remind of Posture, breathing & safety
- TKD Punches
- Stretching Kicks
- Mix and match
- CV, Muscular strength Muscular Endurance, Balance, Technique and FUN
- Mix and create combos
|INTERVALS OF ACTIVE BOUTS AND RECOVERY
- Check RPE 5-8
- Balance Impact & intensity
- Balance Intensity & Complexity
- Strengthen weak muscles
- Stretch Tight
- Partner Sets
(10 minutes with equipment option)
||Focus on muscle groups:Triceps, Latissimus Dorsi, Hamstrings, Gluteals, Tibialis Anterior, Abdominals, Rhomboids
|WARM DOWN & STRETCH
(5 –10 MINUTES)
- Re-stretch Tight Muscles
- Gastrocnemius, Soleus, upper Trapezius
- Erector Spinae, Hamstrings
- Pectorals, Biceps, Anterior Deltoid, Brachialradialis, Hip Flexors, Adductors, Sternocleidomastoid, Iliotibial Band (IT), Fingers
- Piriformis (hip rotators)
The Philosophy of a Champion
TaeKwonDo gives practitioners the opportunity to conquer new goals, while at the same time allowing them to set higher standards for personal performance. In this way, progress is always possible. Dedicated students are trained in goal setting and in making the sacrifices necessary to achieve those goals. According to Grand Master Y.C. Kim the following points are needed to become a champion.
- Never change what works.
- Grasp whatever you can - and be open minded about everything!
- Try new ideas - never close your mind to something different.
- Knowing yourself helps you to know others.
- Never stop learning or limit yourself to what you think you may attain.
- To be 100 percent in physical shape you must first be 100 percent in mental shape.
- Understand that defeat is a process of learning.
- Never degrade yourself by thinking negatively.
- If you lost, figure out why you have lost and find the defenses which will help you the next time.
- The secret to success is to control anger.
- Learn to train your mind to be ahead of your body.
- Beat pain mentally and you will be able to go on forever.
- Don't try to be as good as someone else, rather strive to be your personal best.
- The way you train is the way you react.