I have a 51 year old female client whose knees turn in when she squats (even without weights). How I should rectify the problem?
This mal-alignment is technically called over/uncontrolled pronation. Pronation is comprised of the following major components:
Femoral Internal Rotation
Tibial Internal Rotation
Subtalar Joint Eversion
Mid-tarsal Joint "unlocks"
This kinetic chain mal-alignment is adversely affected with inadequate joint congruency and shear forces, which predispose the client to soft tissue injuries and osseous degenerative effects.
With an understanding that the entire body will be affected by excessive internal rotation (knees turning in uncontrollably), it is logical to control these excessive forces by utilizing an integrated training approach. This approach should start with self myofascial release with a foam roller, specifically addressing the areas of tenderness.
After performing this soft tissue corrective strategy, progress to balance exercises (listed in the PTN Exercise Library) that focus on ONE leg at a time. Applying single leg balance exercises with a concentration on optimal foot/ankle positioning (sub-talar neutral) knee alignment (up over the second and third toe) and hip alignment as well as core control will be an important part of your job. For more information regarding neuromuscular stabilization exercises (balance exercises), search the PTN Content Library under keywords "Neuromuscular Training," "Stabilization Training" and "Balance Training."